Several projects in the Oil and Gas Industry continue to exceed their approved cost and schedules by significant margins. Engineering is often named as a culprit for a lot of Project execution issues manifesting in engineering and construction rework, start-up delays, start-up performance and early facility life issues. Worthy of note is the increasing complexities of Oil and Gas production facilities and systems stemming from more remote operational locations, newer production technologies and a drive for autonomous facilities. Hence, there is a need for an Engineering approach to address current system development issues and poised to take on the complexity challenges of the systems of the future. Model Based System Engineering (MBSE), and System Engineering broadly, have been touted as being beneficial to addressing system complexities in industries like Aerospace. However, there are sparse references that address benefits of such an approach in the Oil and Gas industry. My research as part of the Digital Scholar program at MIT attempts to address the gaps using a case-study analysis of MBSE implementation in Aerospace for insights towards an implementation in the Oil and Gas Industry. As part of the research to establish a business case for the application of MBSE in the industry, typical design issues categories in the industry were evaluated identifying candidates for MBSE Application. This resulted in the development of an MBSE Implementation scorecard for the Oil and Gas Industry. The Scorecard was synthesized from Design Issues aggregated across projects in the Industry combined with the Design Categories used for a NASA MBSE flagship project – the Europa Clipper Project MBSE scorecard based on identified similarities in underlying issues. Some Industry findings were screened out during the scorecard development as they were not considered to be beneficiaries of an immediate impact from the baseline MBSE application proposed. The remaining design categories were combined with respective findings from an Industry survey on System Engineering by The Upstream Oil and Gas Technical Activity Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and a subset of the Europa Clipper System issues to generate 5 broad groups of design issues to be tracked with the Oil and Gas MBSE Implementation scorecard. Design Basis Too Narrow Inadequate linkage and optimization of all stakeholder requirement to system design Incomplete Engineering / Insufficient technical definition - Growing Risk from Unmanaged Complexity and inadequate system level interaction specification and testing Emergence of System Design from Pieces rather than architected holistic solution resulting in ad-hoc management of interactions and interfaces Lack of visibility of full impacts of changing requirements on system functional outcomes Based on published benefits of MBSE and the System Engineering approach in general, ‘To be’ states of the Engineering Design Issues were characterized to represent the envisioned state of how MBSE will eliminate the identified Oil and Gas issues based on an adaptation (as part of this research) of existing testaments of the MBSE approach in tackling complex design issues to the Oil and Gas domain.